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MSU Faculty Authors


North Carolina State University Ph.D., Wood Chemistry, 1981
North Carolina State University M.S., Wood Technology, 1977
University of Florida B.S., Forestry/Wood Science, 1975

Research Interests
Synergistic Wood Preservations
Natural Durability of Wood
Reactions of Lignin
Rapid Analysis of Wood

Development of Commercial Wood Preservatives: Efficacy, Environmental, and Health Issues

Schultz, Tor P.
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISBN: 9780841239517
Collaborators: Holger Militz, Michael H. Freeman, Barry Goodell, and Darrell D. Nicholas, editors
Series: ACS Symposium Series 982

Wood products are used extensively in residential construction and other outdoor applications where the wood can be degraded by many different organisms. To prevent degradation, wood products are treated with biocides. Treated wood is a sustainable, low-cost and effective building material which requires relatively little energy to manufacture, and trees sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as they grow. Therefore, treated wood is an economical construction material and provides ecological benefits to society. However, wood preservation has recently undergone dramatic changes worldwide that have been driven by both real and perceived environmental concerns and governmental regulations.

The protection of wood against the many organisms that can degrade it has unique problems. The vector(s) employed must be effective against a wide variety of organisms and must last for the many years expected from treated wood. The worldwide market for wood-preserving biocides at the active supplier level is relatively small so only limited R&D expenditures are justified. Another challenge with wood is that it is a hygroscopic material that swells when wetted and shrinks as it dries, which leads to undesired dimensional changes that result in lumber in exterior applications splitting or warping over time. Furthermore, the surface of wood exposed to sunlight can photodegrade, and exterior lumber can have surface mold growth if left without maintenance. Therefore, certain species of wood decking gradually lose their initial attractive appearance and require maintenance over time.

This book gives the many steps involved in developing a new wood preservative, written by international experts, that cover various biocides, efficacy testing, formulation development, biocide depletion, termite control methods, registration and approval processes, existing and potential preservative systems for various applications, and environmental and disposal concerns. In addition, overview chapters cover various aspects of wood deterioration, non-biocidal chemicals and processes to protect wood, worldwide trends in wood preservation, and mold and mold health issues in homes.

Wood Deterioration and Preservation: Advances in Our Changing World

Schultz, Tor P.
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISBN: 0841237972
Collaborators: Barry Goodell and Darrel D. Nicholas
Series: ACS Symposium Series #845

A new understanding of how wood degrading agents attack wood products combined with escalating restrictions on traditional wood preservative chemicals, are the two primary issues that spurred the three co-editors' interests in producing this text. The objective of this book is to provide an overall view of our current understanding of wood biodegradation processes and some new developments in the rapidly changing field of wood protection.

The chapters are arranged first to provide the reader with an understanding of the organisms that cause deterioration and the mechanisms they employ in breaking down wood. This is followed by methods used to detect deterioration or to identify the specific organisms involved, and the final section discusses the protection of wood products. With authors contributing from around the world, this text will provide the readers with an up-to-date review of wood deterioration.

Lignin: Historical, Biological, and Materials Perspectives

Schultz, Tor P.
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISBN: 0841236119
Collaborators: Robert A. Northey and Wolfgang G. Glasser
Series: ACS Symposium Series 742

Lignin, the second most abundant organic substance on earth, is one of the three structural polymers present in all woody plants. Lignin influences our world in many different ways. If it had not been for lignin, plants would never have moved from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment during evolution. It is lignin that "stiffens" the plant stem to withstand the forces of gravity and wind. Lignin seals the water conducting system against the hydraulic pressure drop produced by the transport of water from the soil to the leaves and needles. Although lignin provides plants with a protective barrier against the attack by microorganisms, it itself plays an important role as it is being recycled in the natural ecology: It serves the soil as a complexing agent for minerals and as a moisture-retention aid.

The chemical pulping of wood, one of the ten largest industrial activities in North America, involves the removal of lignin from wood. Commensurate with the size of the paper industry has been the scientific effort to understand the modification, depolymerization, and solubilization of lignin in wood. Utilization of this by- (or co-) product of the pulp and papermaking process has resulted in lignin being utilized in many diverse products ranging from road dust binder to a polymer component in printed circuit boards. More than one million tons of lignin are now being sold annually worldwide, thus making this by-product an industrial commodity.

Despite this important role of lignin, however, many uncertainties remain in our understanding of lignin's structure, process of formation, analytical recognition, and behavior in wood, pulp, and human-made materials. These uncertainties continue to be addressed with new scientific methodologies and shifting environmental and ecological concerns. This new research, which combines modern and traditional structural analysis techniques and which makes use of novel experimental protocols emerging from the fields of biotechnology and materials science, are beginning to provide exciting possibilities for recognizing the "true" structure of lignin, and of its behaviors during pulp and paper production and as a contributing constituent of non-woody materials. Much recent research has focused on opportunities for genetically manipulating wood formation in such a manner that lignin becomes easier to remove in environmentally-benign pulping operations. The use of lignin as a low-cost material continues to energize research into developing new lignin-based products. Themultifaceted task of understanding lignin's formation, structure, and its reactions and behaviors during pulping, bleaching, and modification continues to attract the attention of scientists in all disciplines. Because these scientists have diverse scientific, engineering, and business interests, this research creates opportunities for broad discussions on many diverse issues dealing with lignite.

This book was developed from a symposium by the American Chemical Society's Cellulose, Paper, and Textile Division honoring the 1997 Anselme Payen award recipient, Joseph L. McCarthy, held at the 215th National ACS Spring meeting in Dallas, Texas. The Symposium provided a forum for organizing an integrated discussion of our current knowledge on lignin, and on its historical roots. It brought together international scientists from academia, government, and industry to discuss new insights and commercial developments on lignin. This book is divided into five sections: History and Structure, Biochemistry, Analysis, Modification and Utilization, and Pulping and Bleaching. Each section has at least one overview chapter, a comprehensive review written by one or several recognized experts that is followed by chapters dealing with current research findings.

The first section, History and Structure, provides an authoritative perspective on more than 50 years of scientific and engineering endeavors dealing with lignin structure, response to pulping and bleaching, and modification and utilization. The chapters dealing with biochemistry display the current understanding of biochemical pathways leading to precursor formation and the enzymes involved in the production of a cell-binding polymer of considerable nonuniformity. The chapters summarizing analytical advances address both chemical and molecular identities. The section on modification and utilization defines current practice and reviews recent advances in polymeric structure modification and utilization. The wide field of lignin reactions during pulping and bleaching are highlighted in the final part.

It is the hope of the editors that this book will provide practicing scientists with new ideas for studying or utilizing lignin, and also to furnish graduate students with a resource by which they can explore this yet under-understood biopolymer.

Emerging Technologies for Materials and Chemicals from Biomass

Schultz, Tor P.
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISBN: 0841221715
Collaborators: Roger M. Rowell and Ramani Narayan
Series: ACS Symposium Series 476

To describe biomass as an emerging material and source of chemicals may seem redundant because wood has been used as a material from early times and as a source of chemicals for several hundred years. However, the definition of "emerge" is "to rise, to become apparent, and to evolve." In this sense, biomass as a source of material and chemicals is still emerging in the 1990s and will probably continue to do so well into the future.

The term "biomass" is actually a little misleading. We should really use the terms "phytomass", "photomass", "solarmass", or "photosynthetic mass" because this book does not include biomass such as bone, protein, lipids, and other biological components. This book covers plant-based resources including wood, agricultural crops and residues, grasses, and components from these sources.

Until about the 1920s, we relied almost completely on biomass and coal for our materials and chemicals. In the early l900s, a new material emerged called petroleum, which has since become our major source of chemicals and plastic materials. At the same time, modern metal, glass, and chemical technologies were emerging to give us materials such as high carbon and stainless steel, structural aluminum alloys, organometallics, ceramics, and various plastics and adhesives. At a time when plastics, metals, and glass were emerging, the market share of biomass-derived materials decreased.

Because of the oil embargo of the 1970s, the Iraq War of 1990-1991, increased demand from third world countries for modern materials, changes in the economics of competing materials, a re-awareness of our environment, and global interest in recycling, there is a renewed interest in biomass utilization. After thousands of years of use, biomass is once again emerging as a source of materials and chemicals.