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MSU Faculty Authors

Author

Joe D. Seger

Director, Cobb Institute of Archaeology,
Middle Eastern Archaeologist,
Professor, Philosophy and Religion

E-mail address: jds1@ra.msstate.edu
Website: http://www.cobb.msstate.edu/joe.html


Joe D. Seger has been an active member of the American Schools of Oriental Research for more than 30 years. He served as a Trustee of the affiliated W.F. Albright Institute from 1975 and was President of the Ablright Institute Board from 1988-1994. He has been a member of the ASOR Board of Trustees since 1987. Before being elected President of ASOR he served as Vice President for Archaeological Policy. Seger has published eight books and more than 100 reports, articles and reviews on biblical studies, archaeology and Near Eastern history. He has directed major American excavation projects at the biblical sites of Shechem (Tell Balatah) in Jordan (now in the Palestinian West Bank) and at Gezer in Israel. Since 1976 he has been Director of the Lahav Research Project excavations at Tell Halif, near Kibbutz Lahav in Israel. This project came under sponsorship of the Cobb Institute and MSU in 1983.

Education:
Th.D. Harvard University 1965 - Archaeology, Near Eastern Languages and Literature, Old Testament History and Religion
B.D. Eden Theological Seminary 1960 - Old Testament, Philosophy of Religion
B.A. Elmhurst College 1957 - History, Philosophy and Religion


Lahav V: The Iron, Persian, and Hellenistic Occupation within the Walls at Tell Halif

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Eisenbrauns
2015
ISBN: 157506300X
Collaborators: Dan P. Cole, Author. Joe De. Seger, Series Editor
Series: Reports of the Lahav Research Project Excavations at Tell Ha

This is the fifth volume in the series of reports on investigations by the Lahav Research Project (LRP) at Tell Halif in southern Israel. It focuses on the Project?s efforts in Field II during three excavation seasons between 1977 and 1980. Field II was opened on the central summit of the tell in order to examine the ancient city?s intramural stratigraphy. The excavations uncovered twelve phases and sub-phases of occupation, stretching from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the late Roman period. Included were six phases of Iron Age domestic architecture (Strata VIIB-A and VID-A) revealing especially the vitality of the Iron II Judahite settlement during the 9th and 8th centuries B.C.E. In addition were remains of a substantial 6th- to 5th-century Persian fort or residence (Stratum V), as well as successive phases of 4th- to 2nd-century Hellenistic occupation (Stratum IV). Surface traces provide evidence of resettlement at the site during the late Roman period in the 2nd century C.E.



Lahav: The Figurines of Tell Halif

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Eisenbrauns
2015
ISBN: 1575062992
Collaborators: Paul Jacobs, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor
Series: Reports of the Lahav Research Project Excavations at Tell Ha

This volume appears as the fourth in a series of reports on the investigations of the Lahav Research Project (LRP) at Tell Halif, located near Kibbutz Lahav in southern Israel. The book and CD, also titled The Figurines of Tell Halif, contain the publication of the terra-cotta and stone figurine assemblage discovered in the Phase III excavations by LRP. The book presents the text of the report, including relevant archaeological contexts, while the CD is the primary source for detailed information about the figurines. It presents color photographs of each artifact, as well as artist's drawings and QuickTime movies, along with descriptions and a working typology of the mixed Iron II, Persian, and Hellenistic period terra-cottas. Together, book and CD offer the entire corpus of 794 figurine and statue fragments and provide an invaluable addition to the corpus of Levantine figurines.



Gezer VI: The Objects from Phases I and II (1964-1974)

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Eisenbrauns
2014
Collaborators: Garth Gilmour. Eds. Joe D. Seger, W. G. Dever, and Seymour Gitin
Series: Annual of the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology

Publication of Gezer VI: The Objects from Phases I and II (1964 1974) continues the presentation of archaeological reports on the Hebrew Union College-Harvard Semitic Museum Excavations at Gezer between 1964 and 1974 as part of the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology Annual Series. With the exception of objects previously published in Gezer V, Gezer VI provides a comprehensive database with listings of all of the objects recovered during both the Phase I (1968 1971) and Phase II (1971 1974) HUC excavations at the site. In addition, the volume offers a summary of the stratigraphic history of Tell Gezer and includes a series of plates illustrating a large sample of the finds sorted by type and strata. Provided also are a series of comparative studies of the major material and type groupings of the object repertoire.



Lahav III: The Iron Age Cemetery of Tell Halif (Site 72)

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Eisenbrauns
2013
ISBN: 1575062844
Collaborators: Oded Borowski, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor
Series: Reports of the Lahav Research Project Excavations at Tell Ha

In 1965, excavation work for a new swimming pool at Kibbutz Lahav discovered the first in a series of tombs from an Iron Age cemetery on the hillside south of Tell Halif. In 1972, as bulldozers worked to widen the road along the hill's lower flanks, three additional burial caves were exposed, and in the years that followed, various explorations identified still more tomb sites along the ascending slopes. With the initiation of the Lahav Research Project's excavation and survey work at Tell Halif in 1976, the cemetery area was designated as Site 72, and in 1977, in company with a LRP summer campaign at the site, another three tombs were excavated. Now, based on further reconnaisance and reinvestigations at the cemetery by Oded Borowski in 1988, Lahav III provides a comprehensive study of the Site 72 cemetery remains. Although the tombs are, in general, typical for the period, their architecture illustrates a significant range of variations and adaptations. Pottery from sealed deposits dates use of the cemetery to the Iron II era, from ca. 900 to 675 B.C.E., and the tomb population thus mirrors the dating of Iron Age occupation on the tell. The volume also explores the cultic associations and customs reflected in the burial processes. Lahav III is the third volume in the LRP series of final reports.



Gezer VII: The Middle Bronze and Later Fortifications in Fields II, IV, and VIII

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Eisenbrauns
2013
ISBN: 1575062682
Collaborators: Ed. Joe D. Seger and James W. Hardin
Series: Gezer Series. Annual of the Hebrew Union College/Nelson Glueck School of B

In 1912, R. A. S. Macalister published reports on his PEF excavations at Tell Gezer in central Israel, including notice of having traced more than 1,400 meters (almost a full mile) of defense walls around the site. Now, a century later, a detailed reassessment of these fortifications is provided in the publication of Gezer VII: The Middle Bronze and Later Fortifications in Fields II, IV, and VIII, edited by Joe D. Seger and James W. Hardin. This volume features work at Gezer sponsored by Hebrew Union College and Harvard University between 1968 and 1974, reporting on excavations at Macalister s Southern Gate (Field IV) and along his Inner and Outer wall systems both on the southern (Field II) and northern (Field VIII) flanks of the site. These excavations produced much new data, enabling a confident dating of the Southern Gate complex and the Inner Wall system to the latter part of the Middle Bronze period (1700-1500 B.C.E.) and of the Outer Wall to the Late Bronze II and subsequent Hellenistic eras. Among a rich array of cultural remains, intramural occupation of the Middle Bronze Age yielded a gold jewelry hoard and early evidence of alphabetic writing.



Lahav II: Households and the Use of Domestic Space at Iron II Tell Halif: An Archaeology of Destruction

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Eisenbrauns
2010
ISBN: 1575061635
Collaborators: James Walker Hardin, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor
Series: Reports of teh Lahav Research Project Excavations at Tell Halif, Isreal, Volume II

This volume focuses on the reconstruction of household organization during the Iron II period at Tell Halif. It centers in particular on one four-room, pillared-type building located in Area F7 of Field IV and on its remains, which were sealed in a massive destruction that eclipsed the site in the late eighth century B.C.E. This study was first prepared as a Ph.D. dissertation for the Department of Near Eastern Studies at the University of Arizona (Hardin 2001) and has since been amplified and embellished by further research. Published here are the results of research deliberately designed by the author to provide for more complete recovery and detailed recording in the field of all artifacts and other remains within a special refined three-dimensional grid matrix. These data in turn established a framework for studying the formation processes active on the materials and for conducting a spatial analysis of the assemblages in the building. Along with developing ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological inferences, these techniques are used to identify activities, activity areas, and social organization related to the building, ultimately defining an archaeological household consisting of the pillared dwelling and its occupants. Finally, these conclusions are also related to reconstructions of the Iron II-period household suggested by Hebrew Bible sources.



Lahav I: Pottery and Politics: The Halif Terrace Site 101 and Egypt in the Fourth Millennium B.C.E

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Eisenbrauns
2009
Collaborators: J. P. Dessel, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor
Series: Lahav Research Reports

This volume is the first in a planned series of reports on the investigations of the Lahav Research Project (LRP) at Tell Halif, located near Kibbutz Lahav in southern Israel. The LRP has focused widely on stratigraphic, environmental, and ethnographic problems related to the history of settlement at Tell Halif and in its immediate surroundings, from prehistoric through modern times. It is fitting that this LRP series begins by focusing on remains from Site 101, which was the first location excavated by the team in 1973. This initial effort involved investigation of a warren of shallow caves that had been exposed by efforts to widen the road into the kibbutz.
In this volume, J. P. Dessel reports on the excavation undertaken at Site 101 during Phase II and is also supplemented by his later research. The excavation itself was guided throughout by Dessel's determination to require the total retrieval of all ceramic remains. It was his rigorous follow-through on all details involved in the analysis of materials that produced the pioneering results herein presented. Readers will find the book important for the archaeology and history of the southern Levant in the 4th millennium B.C.E. as well as for connections between the Levant and surrounding regions in that era.



An ASOR Mosaic: A Centennial History of the American Schools of Oriental Research

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: American Schools of Oriental Research
2001
ISBN: 0897570332

A pictorial history of ASOR's first century of research and discovery in the Near East. This volume is designed to complement Philip King's earlier work,American Archaeology in the Middle East, and features photos and essays commemorating the activities of ASOR and its affiliated overseas centers through to the close of the twentieth century.



ASOR: Commemorating 100 Years of Service

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: American Schools of Oriental Research
2000
Series: Centennial Program Booklet



Retrieving the Past, Essays on Archaeological Research and Methodology in Honor of Gus W. Van Beek

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Eisenbrauns, Inc.
1996

Presented as a festschrift to honor Gus Van Beek, this collection of essays explores various facets of the Middle Eastern archaeological record with special attention to the contemporary research methods used for the retrieval, analysis, and interpretation of archaeological data.

Retrieving the Past embraces the full spectrum of those scholarly interests in Near Eastern archaeology to which Gus Van Beek has dedicated his career. The volume appropriately includes a bibliography of his professional writings and a brief biography written by Ora Van Beek. In addition, a glimpse into the world of his interpersonal contacts with advisees and colleagues in provided in a review of correspondence with his friend Joseph A. Callaway, written by Jerry Mattingly. The volume offers an excellent set of studies on pioneering aspects of Near Eastern archaeological research. As archaeological collaborators, associates and admirers, the contributors dedicate Retrieving the Past to Gus Van Beek as a fitting tribute to his life and work.



Gezer V, The Field I Caves, 1969-1971

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Ben Zvi Ltd., Jerusalem
1989
ISBN: 0878203052

The publication of Gezer V: The Field I Caves, continues the series of reports on the Hebrew Union College-Harvard Semitic Museum Excavations at Gezer between 1964 and 1974 which are being presented in the Annuals of the Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology in Jerusalem. The preceding volume, Gezer IV: The 1969-71 Seasons in Field VI, the "Acropolis ", appeared in 1986. The present volume completes the discussion of materials from the projects's major sounding in Field I otherwise presented in Gezer I (1970) and GezerII (1974). Excavation work in the bedrock caves in Field I was directed by Dr. Joe D. Seger between 1969 and 1971. In 1969-1970 he served as Acting Archaeological Director of the Nelson Glueck School in the place of W.G. Dever, who was on home leave at the school in Cincinnati. In 1971 Dr. Seger succeeded Dr. Dever as Archaeological Director and Associate Professor of Archaeology at the Jerusalem School, a post which he held until 1974.

The discovery of Early Bronze I period remains in Cave I.3A in the fall of 1969 and of the rich Late Bronze tomb deposits in Cave I.1OA in the spring of 1970 represents special chapters in the history of the modern Gezer excavation work. The first provided new evidence to connect with the earliest "Troglodyte" settlement at Gezer before 3000 B.C., and the second helped to fill a gap in the mid-second millennium B.C. stratigraphic history of the site. The recovery of the impressive Late Bronze age burial materials from Cave I.1OA inspired a special exhibit, "Tomb Offerings from Gezer," at the Rockefeller Museum in Jerusalem in 1972.

Like other volumes in the series, Gezer V provides thorough and detailed studies of the stratigraphy and of the ceramic chronology of the excavated remains. At the same time the more limited scope of the cave deposits along with the rich harvest of related artifact finds have invited a more comprehensive treatment of the objects and other material culture samples. The volume thus includes a fairly exhaustive series of special studies by Dr. Seger and other experts and specialists, along with introductory statements which serve to integrate and summarize the cultural and historical implications of the data. In this respect it has the distinction of serving as a model of the "complete" archaeological report.



Gezer IV, The 1969-1971 Seasons in Field IV

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Keter Press, Jerusalem
1986
ISBN: 0878203044

This report, Volume IV of the series of publications of the Harvard Semitic Museum-Hebrew Union College Excavations at Gezer, covers that part of the work that concentrated on Field VI during the ftfth-seventh seasons in 1961-71, the final seasons of "Phase I."

The 1969 season consisted of a brief pre-season campaign in April, designed to lay out Field VI and to open several squares, together with the major concentration of the total workforce of 125 in Field VI during June 22-August 1. The Director was William G. Dever, then Archaeological Director of the HUCBASJ (renamed the "Nelson Glueck School of Biblical Archaeology in Jerusalem" in 1972); H. Darrell Lance of Colgate Rochester Divinity School (now Colgate-Bexley Hall-Crozier Theological Seminary) was Associate Director. President Nelson Glueck of the HUCJIR and Professor G. Ernest Wright of Harvard University served as Advisors, as they had from the beginning of the Gezer project in 1964. The 100 or so volunteers who again made up the entire workforce and who characterized the now well-known "Gezer Field School" were recruited by the student volunteer office, efficiently overseen by Associate Director H. Darrell Lance at Colgate Rochester Divinity School. The Staff of 26 (Pl. 36B) included field archaeologists, as well as specialists in allied disciplines.3 The Senior or "core Staff" members were again Anita M. Furshpan (now Walker), of the University of Connecticut; John S. Holladay, Jr., of the University of Toronto; Joe D. Seger, now of the Cobb Archaeological Institute of Mississippi State university—all Field Directors; Reuben G. Bullard, of the University, of Cincinnati, Geologist; Robert B. Wright, of Temple University, Photographer (Core Staff member Norma E. Dever, Administrative Assistant, was on leave; Dan P. Cole was Field Director in Field II). Carole Bohn, now of Boston University, was Camp Manager; Hannah Scoggin, of St. Mary's College, was Pottery Registrar; and Judith labeler, of the Fogg Art Museum, was Objects Registrar. Cearbhall O'Meadhra and Gerald B. Lindell were Draftsmen; Theodore A. Rosen was Associate Photographer; and Drs. Frank J. Glassy and Melvin K. Lyons were Camp Physicians. Mr. Gad Granach, major domo of the Jerusalem school, oversaw a camp staff of seven as General Foreman.

The 1970 season in Field VI was confined to the summer, when it was the major focus of the sixth season, June 21-August 7. Dever and Lance again served as Director and Associate Director. The makeup and organization of the 33-person Core and Senior Staff were the same, except that Core Staff member Norma E. Dever managed the student volunteer office, which recruited some 100 student laborers, and returned as Camp Manager and Registrar; and Core Staff member Dan P. Cole, of Lake Forest College, began to move from Field II to Field VI. Physicians were Drs. Melvin K. Lyons and David Posen. A larger number than usual of scientific consultants was attached to the multidisciplinary Staff in 1970, among them Paleoenvironmentalist A. J. Legge, of the Cambridge University Early History of Agriculture Project, under the direction of E. S. Higgs; Geographer D. Webley, of the National Agricultural Advisory Service of Great Britain; Geographer C. Vita-Finzi, of University College, London; and A. Hesse, of the Centre National de la Recherche Francaise, who carried out an electrical resistivity survey. Draftsman was Gerald B. Lindell; Assistant Draftsman was Merete M. Rosen; Assistant Photographer was Wendy Shattill.

The final season of the "Phase I" Gezer excavations, in 1971, ran from June 20 through August 6, with 33 Core and Senior Staff (Pl. 64B) and approximately 1 10 student volunteers recruited by Lance.

Dever and Lance were again Director and Associate Director respectively. Core and Senior Staff remained the same except that Norma E. Dever was absent overseeing the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research in Jerusalem. She was replaced as Camp Manager and Pottery Registrar by Mary Wright as Administrative Assistant and Phyllis Holladay as Pottery Registrar. Myrna Goldblatt was Objects Registrar; Draftsman was Gerald B. Lindell; Assistant Draftsman was Merete M. Rosen; Assistant Photographer was Wendy Shattil. David J. Finkel was Physical Anthropologist. Camp Physicians were David Posen and Benjamin Caplan. A. J. Legge, of the Cambridge University environmental research project (above), returned with a small team.



Field Operations Guidebook

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Lahav Research Project, Omaha
1980

Each archaeological excavation functions through its own organizational patterns which are dependent on the peculiar circumstances of the given site, the availability of staff and field labor, and upon the methodology employed. The Hebrew Union College Gezer Excavations, begun in 1964, have now enjoyed the advantages of eight years of experience in the field. During this time its own particular type of field organization and methodology has had an opportunity to mature and be tested. This Handbook is the second attempt in the course of these exca-vations to provide a manual describing the methods and processes employed in the work at the site. The working guide for Phase I of the field work was provided by Associate Director H. D. Lance's Excavation Manual for Area Supervisors, issued in 1966. This document, in many ways, provided the basis for the present Handbook and is extensively quoted. Likewise, all of the credits given in this earlier work to members of the Drew-McCormick, Shechem Staff, and to others whose ideas and insights have been therein codified, are equally acknowledged here.

It is nonetheless true that the experience at Gezer over the past half decade has indicated the need for some changes and refinements in the field and recording operations. The outline of excavation procedures and field recording processes that follows has been designed to incorporate these needed re-finements, as well as to describe new procedures for use in Phase II of the Gezer field work, be-ginning with the 1972 season.

Unlike Lance's Manual this new Handbook is intended not only to instruct and assist Area Supervisors, but also to be more of an overall guide for all members of the Staff, and to enable each to see how his work and recording tasks relate to the other aspects of the field operations. In this respect it serves also as a kind of textbook for volunteers and others interested in understanding the Gezer recording system and methodology. It is, of course, true that at many points the materials presented here can only be fully understood as the processes involved are worked through in the field. For this no apology is required. The necessity of actual physical involvement with dirt and artifacts is inherent in development of archaeological sophistication and understanding. This Handbook is designed specif-ically to guide and elucidate the field operations at Gezer, rather than in any sense to substitute for the experience of working with them.

In presenting this new statement the writer wishes to fully acknowledge his indebtedness to all of the members of the Gezer Phase I Core Staff, in-cluding Director W. G. Dever, Associate Director Lance, Drs. Reuben G. Bullard, Dan P. Cole, Anita M. Furshpan, John S. Holladay, Jr., and Robert B. Wright, and Mrs. Norma Dever, with whom the substance of much of what is codified here has been lived in the past six summers. An additional note of credit is, of course, due to H. D. Lance, whose original Manual has until now provided a most useful guide for all of the Gezer work. For help in the mechanics of preparing this new text, the author also wishes to acknowledge the generous cooperation of the Gezer Publication Staff, including especially Mrs. Theodore Rosen, firs. Deborah Stern, and Mrs. Karen Seger. Their assistance in preparing the cartographic features and in typing and proofreading the manuscript, has been most instrumental in providing for its early completion. Responsibility for any limitations and omissions in this present work are, of course, my own.



Western Humanities, A Lecture Outline

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: University of Nebraska-Omaha
1978

The materials in this workbook cover the broad sweep of western humanistic development from its most ancient roots within the cultures of the Egyptians and Mesopotamians through to its reawakening in the period of the Renaissance and Reformation. The outlines are prepared specifically as an accompaniment to the readings and lectures planned for the Humanities 101 course. In presenting these materials no pretense to completeness is suggested. They are not intended to serve as a substitute for either the lectures or for the readings which will be otherwise assigned. Rather they should serve as a vehicle for preparation and review, as an aid in the effort to integrate and understand the development of western culture and humanistic tradition, and as a stimulant for further thought and for discussion in the course section meetings.

Much of the material included in these outlines has been gleaned from presentations by lecturers in the Humanities 101 program through the past years. While the authors alone bear responsibility for what appears, our debt to these contributors is nonetheless real. At the same time the contribution of typist and proof editor, Beverly Butterfield, must likewise be acknowledged. Her skills and the attention she has given to the details of this project have greatly facilitated its completion.

Finally a word of appreciation also for the confidence and support of both Dean John Newton of the College of Arts and Sciences, and UNO Provost Herbert Garfinkel. Without their assistance in securing funds to staff the research and preparation of this workbook the project could not have been initiated.



Climbing the Steps of Time

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Jewish Community Center of Omaha
1978

This exhibit catalogue was presented at A Festival Of Biblical Art and Archaeology. The text, written by Dr. Joe D. Seger, accompanies the photographs of Susan Einstein and Patricia O'Conner.



Gezer II - Report of the 1967-70 Seasons in Fields I and II

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Jerusalem
1974
ISBN: 0878203028

This report covers the excavations which took place in Fields I and II as part of the work at Gezer mainly in the third and fourth seasons, in 1967-68.

The 1967 season was cancelled in June on the eve of the Six Day War, but a brief season from July 18 through August 11 was rescheduled and carried out as planned. The excavation was directed by William G. Dever, then Archaeological Director of the HUCBASJ; H. Darrell Lance of Colgate Rochester Divinity School was Associate Director. President Nelson Glueck of the HUC-JIR and Professor G. Ernest Wright of Harvard University served as Advisors. The labor force was made up of some 90 student volunteers, in an academic program featuring directed field work plus lectures, seminars and tours. This program was pioneered at Gezer beginning in 19642 and is now a familiar feature on almost all excavations in Israel. The student volunteer office in New York was managed by Dean Paul M. Steinberg of the HUC-JIR. The staffof 25 (P.45A) included field archaeologists as well as specialists in allied disciplines. The Senior or Core Staff members were Anita M. Furshpan, John S. Holladay, Jr., Joe D. Seger—all Field Archaeologists; Reuben G. Bullard, Geologist; Robert B. Wright, Photographer; and Norma E. Dever, Registrar and Camp Manager. Gerald B. Lindell was Draftsman; Dr. William Shea was the Camp Physician.

The fourth season was conducted between June 24 and August 2, 1968. The organization was approximately the same as that of the 1967 season, except that volunteers increased to about 100 and Staff to 30. Lance was in charge of the volunteer recruitment program in the U.S. and Dever and Lance served again as Director and Associate Director, respectively. Professors Glueck and Wright continued as Advisors. The Core Staff remained the same, except that Dan P. Cole, absent in the 1967 season, returned. Evelyn Rattray was Consulting Anthropologist; Polly Roberts was Objects Registrar; Robert Greenberg was Architect; and Gerald B. Lindell was Draftsman. Drs. Richard M. Goodman and William G. Prescott were Camp Physicians. Mr. Gad Granach, major dome of the HUCBASJ, was General Foreman (Pl. 45B).

Small operations as part of the fifth and sixth seasons in 1969-70 concluded Field II (infra, p. 47).



Tomb Offerings from Gezer

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Rockefeller Museum, Jerusalem
1972

Tomb Offerings from Gezer is an exhibition catalogue which includes text by Dr. Joe Seger, photographs by Theodore A. Rosen, and Drawings by Muff Rosen and Yvonne Levy. This exhibition of findings from the ancient biblical city of Gezer took place at The Israel Museum in Jerusalem during the summer of 1972.



Handbook for Field Operations

Seger, Joe D.
Publisher: Hebrew Union College, Jerusalem
1972

Each archaeological excavation functions through its own organizational patterns which are dependent on the peculiar circumstances of the given site, the availability of staff and field labor, and upon the methodology employed. The Hebrew Union College Gezer Excavations, begun in 1964, have now enjoyed the advantages of eight years of experience in the field. During this time its own particular type of field organization and methodology has had an opportunity to mature and be tested. This Handbook is the second attempt in the course of these exca-vations to provide a manual describing the methods and processes employed in the work at the site. The working guide for Phase I of the field work was provided by Associate Director H. D. Lance's Excavation Manual for Area Supervisors, issued in 1966. This document, in many ways, provided the basis for the present Handbook and is extensively quoted. Likewise, all of the credits given in this earlier work to members of the Drew-McCormick, Shechem Staff, and to others whose ideas and insights have been therein codified, are equally acknowledged here.

It is nonetheless true that the experience at Gezer over the past half decade has indicated the need for some changes and refinements in the field and recording operations. The outline of excavation procedures and field recording processes that follows has been designed to incorporate these needed re-finements, as well as to describe new procedures for use in Phase II of the Gezer field work, be-ginning with the 1972 season.

Unlike Lance's Manual this new Handbook is intended not only to instruct and assist Area Supervisors, but also to be more of an overall guide for all members of the Staff, and to enable each to see how his work and recording tasks relate to the other aspects of the field operations. In this respect it serves also as a kind of textbook for volunteers and others interested in understanding the Gezer recording system and methodology. It is, of course, true that at many points the materials presented here can only be fully understood as the processes involved are worked through in the field. For this no apology is required. The necessity of actual physical involvement with dirt and artifacts is inherent in development of archaeological sophistication and understanding. This Handbook is designed specif-ically to guide and elucidate the field operations at Gezer, rather than in any sense to substitute for the experience of working with them.

In presenting this new statement the writer wishes to fully acknowledge his indebtedness to all of the members of the Gezer Phase I Core Staff, in-cluding Director W. G. Dever, Associate Director Lance, Drs. Reuben G. Bullard, Dan P. Cole, Anita M. Furshpan, John S. Holladay, Jr., and Robert B. Wright, and Mrs. Norma Dever, with whom the substance of much of what is codified here has been lived in the past six summers. An additional note of credit is, of course, due to H. D. Lance, whose original Manual has until now provided a most useful guide for all of the Gezer work. For help in the mechanics of preparing this new text, the author also wishes to acknowledge the generous cooperation of the Gezer Publication Staff, including especially Mrs. Theodore Rosen, firs. Deborah Stern, and Mrs. Karen Seger. Their assistance in preparing the cartographic features and in typing and proofreading the manuscript, has been most instrumental in providing for its early completion. Responsibility for any limitations and omissions in this present work are, of course, my own.




Seger, Joe D. "In Memoriam: Gus W. Van Beek 1922-2012" Albright News (The W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research) 17 (2012): 16.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Jonathan Brown and Laurence Kutler's] Nelson Glueck: Biblical Archaeologist and President of Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion" Near Eastern Archaeology 74.1 (2011): 62-63.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of] Excavations at Tel Beth-Shean 1989-1996, Volume III: The 13th-11th Century BCE Strata in Areas N and S" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 362 (2011): 89-90.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Ashkelon I: Introduction and Overview (1985-2006)" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 357 (2010): 91-92.
Seger, Joe D. "{Book Review of] Excavations at Tel Beth Shean 1989-1996, Volume II: The Middle and Late Bronze Strata in Area R" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 359 (2010): 83-85.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Nimrod Getzov's] The Tell Bet Ye rah Excavations, 1994-1995" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 350 (2008): 94-96.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Amihai Mazar's] Excavations at Tel Beth Shean 1989-1995, Volume I: From the Late Bronze Age IIB to the Medieval Period" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 350 (2008): 99-101.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Sara Ben-Arich's] Bronze and Iron Age Tombs at Tell Beit Mirsim " Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 342 (2006): 114-116.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Sara Ben-Arieh's] Bronze and Iron Age Tombs at Tell Beit Mirsim" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 342 (2006): 114-116.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Amihai Mazar and Nava Panits-Cohen's] Timnah (Tel Batash) II: The Finds from the First Millennium BCE" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 330 (2003): 91-93.
Seger, Joe D. "Its Time to Raise the BAR (Former ASOR President Blasts BAR Editor)" Biblical Archaeology Review 29.4 (2003): 8-10.
Seger, Joe D. "Celebrating a Century" American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter 50.2 (2000): 1-3.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Roz Kletter's] Economic Keystones: The Weight System of the Kingdom of Judah" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 317 (2000): 89-92.
Seger, Joe D. "Letter from the President" American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter 49.3 (1999): 3.
Seger, Joe D. "Trustees Approve Mission Statement" American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter 49.2 (1999): 1, 7.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of George L. Kelm and Amihai Mazar's] Timnah: A Biblical City in the Sorek Valley" Journal of the American Oriental Society 118.3 (1998): 440.
Seger, Joe D. "RX for ASOR: Shanks May Be Right!" American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter 48.1 (1998): 1.
Seger, Joe D. "ASOR Policy of Preservatin and Protection of Archaeological Resources" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1998): 1-2.
Seger, Joe D. "Vision 2000 Program to Probe ASOR's Future" American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter 48.2 (1998): 1.
Seger, Joe D. "EBR Travel Support Discontinued for 1999" American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter 48.2 (1998): 1.
Seger, Joe D. "P.E. MacAllister Honored at 80th Birthday" American Schools of Oriental Research Newsletter 48.3 (1998): 7.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of P. R. S. Mooney's] A Century of Biblical Archaeology" Journal of the American Oriendal Society 115.4 (1995): 23-25.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of] Eretz Israel, Volume 24 The Avraham Malamat Volume" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 298 (1995): 90-92.
Seger, Joe D. "Lahav DIGMASTER" Biblical Archaeologist 58.2 (1995): 116.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of] The Architecture of Ancient Israel" Biblical Archaeology Review 20.1 (1994): 134-135.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of] Tell el-Hesi: The Site and the Expedition" Biblical Archaeology Review 19.2 (1993): 8.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of] Hazor III-IV: An Account of the Third and Fourth Seasons of Excavation, 1957-1958" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 290-291 (1993): 134-135.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Amahai Mazar's] Archaeology of the Land of the Bible 10,000-586 B.C" Biblical Archaeologist 54.2 (1991): 114-115.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of] Excavations at Tel Michal, Israel" Biblical Archaeology Review, 17.3 (1991): 4-8.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Volkmar Fritz's] Einfuhrung in die biblishe Archaeologie" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 277 (1990): 132-133.
Seger, Joe D. and Paul F. Jacobs. "The Bronze Age Settlements at Tell Halif: Phase II Excavations, 1983-1987" . Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Supplement 26 (1990): 1-32.
Seger, Joe D. "Lahav Research Project Excavations at Tell Halif, 1989" Hadashot Arkeologiyot 94 (1990): 57.
Seger, Joe D. "In Memoriam, Joseph A. Callaway, 1920-1988" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1989): 1-3.
Seger, Joe D. "Lahav Research Project, Tell Halif Excavations, 1987" Hadashot Arkeologiyot 92 (1988): 57.
Seger, Joe D. and Victor Goodside. "Why is a Bilbil Called a Bilbil?" Biblical Archaeology Review 14.1 (1988): 60.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Sayyare Eichler's] Tell Al-Hamidiyya I: Vorbericht 1984" Catholic Biblical Quarterly 50 (1988): 113-114.
Seger, Joe D. "News and Notes, Tell Halif, 1986" Israel Exploration Journal (1987): 192-195, Pls. 23 and 24.
Seger, Joe D. and Jonathan Rosenbaum. "Three Unpublished Ostraca from Gezer" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1986): 51-60.
Seger, Joe D. "The Location of Biblical Ziklag" Biblical Archaeologist 47.1 (1984): 47-53.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of Ora Negbi's] Canaanite Gods in Metal: An Archaeological Study of Ancient Syro-Palestinian Figurines" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 249 (1983): 95-96.
Seger, Joe D. "[Book Review of A. Kempinski's] Syrien und Palestina (Kanaan) in der Letze Phase der Mittlebronze II B-Zeit (1650-1570 V. Chr.)" Catholic Biblical Quarterly 47 (1983): 528-530.
Seger, Joe D. "Lahav Research Project: Investigations at Tell Halif, 1976-1980" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (1983): 1-23.

Seger, Joe D. "'Miscellaneous Finds' Chapter 4 Objects F." Lahav V: The Iron, Persian, and Hellenistic Occupation within the Walls at Tell Halif. Dan P. Cole, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015.
Seger, Joe D. "'Bronze Bell' Chapter 4 Objects D." Lahav V: The Iron, Persian, and Hellenistic Occupation within the Walls at Tell Halif. Dan P. Cole, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015.
Seger, Joe D. "'Ptolemaic Coin' Chapter 4 E." Lahav V: The Iron, Persian, and Hellenistic Occupation within the Walls at Tell Halif. Dan P. Cole, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015.
Seger, Joe D. "'Bulla with Cylinder Seal Impression' Chapter 4 Objects B." Lahav V: The Iron, Persian, and Hellenistic Occupation Within the Walls at Tell Halif. Dan P. Cole, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015.
Seger, Joe D. "'Bronze Thymiaterion' Chapter 4 Objects C." Lahav V: The Iron, Persian, and Hellenistic Occupation within the Walls at Tell Halif. Dan P. Cole, Author. Joe D. Seger, Series Editor. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2015.
Dever, W. G., and Joe D. Seger. "Chapter 2: A Brief Summary of the Stratigraphy and Cultural History of Gezer." Gezer VI: The Objects from Phases I and II (1964-1974). Garth Gilmour. Eds. Joe D. Seger, W. G. Dever, and Seymour Gitin. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2014. 8.
Dever, W. G., Garth Gilmour, and Joe D. Seger. "Chapter 1: The Nature and Use of This Volume." Gezer VI: The Objects from Phases I and II (1964-1974). Garth Gilmour. Eds. Joe D. Seger, W. G. Dever, and Seymour Gitin. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2014. 3-7.
Seger, Joe D. and W. G. Dever. "Introduction." Gezer VI: The Objects from Phases I and II (1964-1974). Garth Gilmour. Eds. Joe D. Seger, W. G. Dever, and Seymour Gitin. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2014. 1-3.
Seger, Joe D. "Chapter Six: Mysteries of the Middle Bronze Age at Gezer: Stories Yet to be Told." Bethsaida in Archaeology, History and Ancient Culture: A Festschrift in Honor of John T. Greene. Ed. J. Harold Ellens. Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014. 122-133.
Seger, Joe D. "The Typology of LB I Cooking Pots in Canaan." Eretz-Israel, Volume 30. Amnon Ben-Tor. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2011. 104-118.
Seger, Joe D. and Dan P. Cole. "Traces of the Persian Period Settlement at Tel Halif." Eretz-Israel, Volume 29. Ephriam Stern. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2009. 11-18.
Seger, Joe D. and Paul F. Jacobs. "Glimpses of the Iron Period at Tell Halif." Essays on the Archaeology and History of the Eastern Mediterranean in Honor of Seymour Gitin. Eds. S. White-Crawford, et. al.. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Exploration Society, 2007. 146-155.
Seger, Joe D. and James W. Hardin. "Gezer Rectified: The Dating of the South Gate Complex." Confronting the Past: Archaeological and Historical Essays on Ancient Israel in Honor of William G. Dever. Seymour Gitin. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2006. 51-60.
Seger, Joe D. "Queen or Crone? Gendered Archaeology in an LB Tomb at Gezer." The Archaeology of Difference: Gender, Ethnicity, Class and the "Other" in Antiquity: Annual of ASOR Volume 60/61. Eds. Douglas R. Edwards and C. Thomas McCollough. Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2005. 85-94.
Seger, Joe D. "Opening Remarks: Greetings." Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past: Proceeding of the Centennial Symposium of the W. F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research and the American Schools of Oriental Research. Eds. W. G. Dever and S. Gitin. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003. xv.
Seger, Joe D. "Footsteps in the Dust." 100 Years of American Archaeology in the Middle East: Centennial Proceedings of the American Schools of Oriental Research 2000. Eds. Douglas Clark a nd Victor H. Matthews. Boston, MA: American Schools of Oriental Research, 2003. 429-434.
Seger, Joe D. "Forward." Philistines: Giving Goliath His Due (Marco Polo Monographs, No. 7). Neal Bierling. Warren Center, PA: Shangri-La Publications, 2002. 1.
Seger, Joe D. "Stone Scale Weights of the Judean Standard from Tell Halif." Hesed vi-Emet, festschrift in Honor of Ernest Frerichs. Eds. Jodi Magness and Seymour Gitin. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1998. 357-374.
Seger, Joe D. "Azekah." Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Ed. in Chief, Eric M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 243.
Seger, Joe D. "Lahav (Tel Halif)." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Ed. in Chief, Eric M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 325-326.
Seger, Joe D. "Shechem." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Ed. in Chief, Eric M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 19-23.
Seger, Joe D. "Water Tunnels." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Ed. in Chief, Eric M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 331-332.
Seger, Joe D. "Resistivity." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Ed. in Chief, Eric M. Meyers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. 423-424.
Seger, Joe D. "Context as Text." Retrieving the Past: Essays on Archaeological Research and Methodology in Honor of Gus W. Van Beek. Ed. Joe D. Seger. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1996. vii-viii.
Seger, Joe D. "Archaeology’s Midlife Crisis." Archaeology’s Publication Problem. Amnon Ben-Tor, et. al.. Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 1996. 55-70.
Seger, Joe D. "A Note of the Early Antiquity of the Song of Hannah." Biblical and Humane: A Festschrift for John F. Priest. Eds. Linda Bennett Elder, David L. Barr, and Elizabeth Struthers Malbon. Antlanta, GA: Scholar's Press, 1996. 47-52.
Seger, Joe D. "The Point One Principle: A Case Study from the Halif Terrace." Retrieving the Past: Essays on Archaeological Research and Methodology in Honor of Gus W. Van Beek. Ed. Joe D. Seger. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1996. 231-244.
Seger, Joe D. "Halif Tell." The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Ed. Ephraim Stern. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993. 553-559.
Seger, Joe D. "Gath." Anchor Bible Dictionary, Volume II. Ed. in Chief, David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992. 908-909.
Seger, Joe D. "Halif Tell." Anchor Bible Dictionary, Volume III. Ed. in Chief, David Noel Freedman. New York: Doubleday, 1992. 28-30.
Seger, Joe D. "Limping About the Altar." Eretz Israel, Volume 23. Avraham Biran. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1992. 120-127.
Seger, Joe D. "Tell Halif-1989." Excavations and Surveys in Israel 1989/1990, Volume 9. Ed. Ayala Sussmann. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority, 1991. 67-68.
Seger, Joe D. "Tell Halif - 1987." Excavations and Surveys in Israel 1988-89, Volumes 7-8. Inna Pommerantz and Ann Hurowitz. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority, 1990. 69-71.
Seger, Joe D. "The Location of Biblical Ziklag According to the Tell Halif Excavations (in Hebrew)." Man and Environment in the Southern Shefelah: Studies in Regional Geography and Israel. Eds. Eliahu Stern and Dan Urman. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev: Massada Press, 1988. 130-138.
Seger, Joe D. "Chapter 9: Tell Gezer, Phase II Excavations 1972-1974." Archaeology and Biblical Interpretations: Essays in Memory of D. Glenn Rose. Eds. Leo G. Perdue, Lawrence E. Toombs, and Gary L. Johnson. John Knox Press, 1987. 113-128.
Seger, Joe D. "Some Provisional Correlations in EB III Stratigraphy in Southern Palestine." L’urbanisation de la Palestine a l’ age du bronze ancien . Ed. Pierre de Miroschedji. Oxford, England: British Archaeological Reports, 1986. 117-135.
Seger, Joe D. "The Gezer Jar Signs: New Evidence of the Earliest Alphabet." The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth: Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman in Celebration of His Sixtieth Birthday. Eds. Carol L. Meyers and Michael Patrick O'Connor. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1983. 477-495.

Seger, Joe D. "Gezer, A Twice-Told Tell, 1902-1909 and 1964-1974." Biblical Archaeology Today 1990, Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Jerusalem, June-July 1990. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993. 559-574.
Seger, Joe D. "Phase II Excavations at Gezer in Retrospect." Annual Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Philadelphia, PA, November 17, 2005.
Seger, Joe D. "A Fresh Stirring of Pots." Annual Southeastern Regional Meeting, American Academy of Religion, Society of Biblical Literature, American Schools of Oriental Research, Winston-Salem, NC, March 12, 2005 .
Seger, Joe D. "The Development of ASOR’s Publication Policy: Historical Background." Annual Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research, San Antonio, TX, November 18, 2004.
Seger, Joe D. "Stratigraphy, Chronology and Terminology: A Response." Biblical Archaeology Today, Proceedings of the First World Congress on Biblical Archaeology, Isreal Exploration Society, Jerusalem, Israel, 1985. 157-159.
Seger, Joe D. "A Head’s Up on Tell Halif." Annual Meeting of the Southwest Commission on Religious Studies, ASOR Regional Society, Dallas TX, March 15, 2003.
Seger, Joe D. "Queen or Crone? Gender Status in an LB Tomb at Gezer." Annual Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research,Toronto, Canada, November 23, 2002 .
Seger, Joe D. "From Abraham to Jesus: Thirty Years of Biblical Archaeology at the University of Nebraska at Omaha." Keynote Address at Biblical Archaeology Conference, University of Nebraska Omaha, October 24, 2002.
Seger, Joe D. "Sunken Ships ." Joint ASOR/AIA symposium in honor of the ASOR Centennial. Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, San Diego, CA, January 6, 2001 .
Seger, Joe D. "Empire and Palace Economies, Late Bronze Age (Opening remarks for the symposium, also presided and served as respondent for opening session - invited.)." AIAR/ASOR Centennial Symposium, Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel, May 29, 2000 .
Seger, Joe D. "Footsteps in the Dust: A Century of ASOR Discoveries in the Ancient Near East." ASOR Centennial program in cooperation with the Smithsonian Associates, Jefferson Auditorium, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, April 15,2000.
Seger, Joe D. "Excavations at Tell Gezer in Retrospect and Prospect." Meeting Section Organized for the Annual Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Philadelphia, PA, National Meeting, November 17, 2005.
Seger, Joe D. "Phase II Excavations at Gezer in Retrospect." Annual Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Philadelphia, PA, November 17, 2005.
Seger, Joe D. "Near Eastern Archaeology in the 21st Century - New Perspectives and New Horizons." ASOR Centennial Program “Footsteps in the Dust” in cooperation with the Smithsonian Associates, Jefferson Auditorium, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington DC, April 15, 2000 .
Seger, Joe D. "We Must Pay Attention to our Ghosts." Annual Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research Southeastern Regional Society, Atlanta, GA, March 12, 2000.
Seger, Joe D. "The Typology of Pottery through the MB-LB Transition at Tell Halif." Annual Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Cambridge, MA, November 18, 1999.
Giordana, A., M. McCarthy, E. Peacock, K. Guilbeau, W. G. Ramey, J. D. Seger, and W. G. Ramsey. "Estimation of Firing Temperature and Compositional Variability of Archaeological Pottery by Differential Scanning Calorimetry." Materials Research Society Proceedings, Volume 852, 00.6, Fall 2004.
Seger, Joe D. "Is There Anything New in Middle Eastern Archaeology? (The Big Picture in Middle East Archaeology)." By Proxy for the Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research Southeastern Regional Society, Greensboro, NC, March 13-15, 2009.
Seger, Joe D. "The Early Bronze Age in the Southern Levant: A View from Tell Halif." Invited Plenary Lecture: American Schools of Oriental Research Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting: Seattle University, Seattle, WA, May 4, 2013.